Former CIA officer Graham Fuller discussed Syria under Assad’s predecessor, his father, Hafez al-Assad. It ‘s Entitled “Bringing Real Muscle to Bear Against Syria” and dated September 14, 1983, amid the Iran-Iraq War:
“Syria at present has a hammerlock on US interests both in Lebanon and in the Gulf — through closure of Iraq’s pipeline thereby threatening Iraqi internationalization of the war. The US should consider sharply escalating the pressures against Assad through covertly orchestrating simultaneous military threats against Syria from three border states hostile to Syria: Iraq, Israel and Turkey.”
Fuller’s analysis conveys Assad as a nuisance hindering the American empire’s lust to control fossil fuel stores and protect ally, Israel, against multiple threats in the Middle East.
Destabilization of Iraq and Iran is also featured in the intricate U.S. plan to deal with the irritant, elder Assad, who recognized Western ulterior motives.
The six-page document continues:
“Syria continues to maintain a hammerlock on two key U.S. interests in the Middle East.
Syrian refusal to withdraw its troops from Lebanon ensures Israeli occupation in the south.
Syrian closure of the Iraqi pipeline has been a key factor in bringing Iraq to its financial knees, impelling it towards dangerous internationalization of the war in the Gulf.
Diplomatic initiatives to date have had little effect on Assad who has so far correctly calculated the play of forces in the area and concluded they are only weakly arrayed against him. If the U.S. is to rein in Syria’s spoiling role, it can only do so through the exertion of real muscle which will pose a vital threat to Assad’s position and power.”